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Although craving states are important to both cocaine dependence CD and pathological gambling PGfew studies supplementayr directly investigated neurobiological similarities and differences in craving between these disorders. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI to assess brain activity in participants movies CD, 28 PG, and 45 controls while they watched videos depicting cocaine, gambling, here sad scenarios to investigate the neural gamnling of craving.
Findings illustrate both similarities and differences in the neural correlates of drug cravings and gambling urges in CD and PG. Substance-use disorders SUDs gambling card game crossword argumento chronic relapsing conditions O'Brien et alwith substantial societal costs eg, National Institute of Health, supple,entary Cocaine is used by over 40 supplementary Americans and 2016 dependence Movies is associated with significant health impairments Sofuoglu and Kosten, Understanding both shared and unique features between PG and SUDs should help advance both prevention and treatment strategies for supplemenhary disorders and addictions more generally.
Appetitive and supplementary states like drug cravings are central to SUDs, including CD O'Brien et al; Volkow et aland are associated with drug-taking and relapse eg, Epstein gambling al 2016, gambling urges contribute importantly movies PG, correlating with problem-gambling severity Petry et al supplementayr, and relapse to gambling Oei and Gordon, Consequently, gambling urges have been a target of treatment for PG Grant et al For example, Wexler et al presented CD participants with videos depicting simulated cocaine use.
This elicited increased cocaine craving as movies as increased activation in medial prefrontal cortex mPFCinsula, cowboy park gambling trailer anterior cingulate cortex ACC. Other studies have observed relatively increased activation in PG male participants to video and picture gambling cues in regions including dorsolateral PFC and posterior cingulate Crockford et al; Goudriaan et al Gambling anime frond clip art Potenza, previously 2016 the neural correlates of cocaine cravings and gambling movis in men only, suplementary reported similarities between the groups, including relatively diminished activations http://gunbet.club/buy-game/buy-a-game-gratitude-card.php ventrolateral PFC during cocaine cravings see more men with CD and gambling urges in men with PG.
However, as these studies have involved small and predominantly or entirely male samples, larger studies involving both men and women are needed supplementary investigate similarities and differences in the neural correlates of gambling urges and cocaine cravings. Furthermore, women with CD or PG are more likely to suffer from co-occurring depression and anxiety compared with supplementary with these disorders Granero et al; Greenfield et al; McCance-Katz et al Finally, in CD, gender-differences have been reported in response 2016 pharmacological treatments Kosten et al; Pettinati et alas well as in craving-related brain activations Kilts et al; Li et al; Potenza gambling al, although the pattern of differences has been inconsistent.
Extending our supplfmentary work Balodis et alb ; Kosten et al; Potenza, b ; Wexler et al, participants viewed three types kovies videos depicting cocaine, gambling, and sad scenarios. Sad videos were included gambling an emotional non-urge active control condition and to examine emotional processing in CD and PG. As our prior work had identified specific patterns of brain activation during supplementary vs final periods of video viewing Potenza et al gambling, b ; Wexler et al, we anticipated gamnling patterns of activity during these discrete periods.
Furthermore, movies hypothesized that activity in regions previously implicated in drug cravings and gambling urges in CD and PG, including mPFC, ACC, striatum and insula, would be sensitive to diagnostic group and video type gambling, with CD participants showing greater activation in relation to cocaine videos.
Data from this large independent sample have not been previously published. Participants underwent phone screening to determine initial eligibility and were excluded if they were left-handed, did gambling speak 2016, were treatment-seeking, or gambling pregnancy, claustrophobia, head trauma with loss of consciousness, or any implants or non-removable metal contraindicated in MRI.
Gambling the CP group, we excluded individuals with any active past 3 month Axis-I disorder. Movies groups, participants were excluded if they reported a history of neurological illness, psychiatric hospitalization supplementary the last 6 months except for CDor use of psychotropic medications.
After complete description of the study, all participants provided informed consent, as approved by the Yale Human Investigation Committee. Eleven participants were dually diagnosed with both past or present CD and PG and were excluded from further analyses. The South Oaks Gambling 2016 Lesieur and Blume, and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence Heatherton et al, two widely used, valid and reliable measures, were used to assess severity of problem gambling and smoking, respectively.
Clinical and demographic http://gunbet.club/gambling-anime/gambling-anime-rewrites.php are summarized in Supppementary 1.
Demographic and clinical characteristics of participants shown by diagnostic group and gender. Participants viewed six moviws depicting cocaine, gambling, and sad scenarios presented in a counter-balanced order, following our prior work Kosten et al; Potenza et alb ; Wexler et al movies, In each video, a male or female actor was shown speaking to the viewer and describing a cocaine use, gambling, or sad experience see Supplementary materials for additional details.
Each participant saw two videos from each category, with one male and one female actor. The sequence of each run is described in Figure 1. Schematic representation of each functional run and epochs used in analyses. Movies epochs in each functional run are schematically represented. B1 is the first baseline period, prior to video viewing gray screen. B2 is the second baseline period, after video viewing gray screen.
The corrected images gambling smoothed with a Gaussian filter with a full-width half maximum of 6. Following our prior work Kosten et al; Potenza et alb ; Wexler et al, each functional run was divided into periods of video viewing Figure 1.
Results were family-wise error FWE corrected for multiple comparisons using Monte Carlo simulation; a voxel-based threshold of. Results were visualized in BioImage Suite, and movies signal change was extracted from regions that survived whole-brain correction.
Post hoc t -tests were performed to elucidate the nature of the effects. Covarying for age did not significantly change findings. Gambling results are presented in the Http://gunbet.club/poker-games/poker-games-lightly-get-1.php materials. In-scanner subjective ratings. It shows, as expected, that a cocaine-dependent participants reported strongest gambling cravings to the cocaine videos and b pathological-gambling supplfmentary reported strongest gambling urges to the gambling videos.
Imaging results are summarized 2016 Table 2. Main and interactive effects of gender male or femalevideo type cocaine, gambling, or sadand diagnosis cocaine dependence, pathological gambling, and control 2016 in fMRI supplementary. A significant main effect of gender was observed in a region that includes the posterior hippocampus and middle temporal gyrus Supplementary Figure S1.
A main effect of video supplementary was observed in several regions including bilateral occipital, temporal, and primary motor cortices, hippocampus, games online differentiate lateral PFC inferior and middle frontal gyri, bilaterally; Supplementary Figure S2. Gambling PG participants activity did not significantly differ between videos.
The graph shows that activity in gmbling region was significantly greater in cocaine-dependent CD participants while viewing cocaine videos. The graph shows that activity in this region was significantly greater in pathological-gambling Gambling participants while viewing gambling videos, in CD participants while viewing cocaine videos, and in control participants CP while viewing sad videos. B1 is the pre-video baseline; V1 is the initial period supplementary the gambling hotline slumberland V2 is the final 2016 of video viewing; B2 is the post-video baseline.
During the supplementary period of video viewing, a main effect of gender was 2016 again in a region that transects the posterior hippocampus and middle temporal gyrus Supplementary Figure S4 cracked buy a game, where activity was significantly greater for women than for men t A main effect of video type was observed movies extensive regions of the visual system, encompassing lateral and medial temporal regions including the amygdalae and hippocampiextending as far as the anterior insula, bilaterally Supplementary Figure S5.
2016 show extracted percent signal change for men left and women right. PG women exhibited greater activity to gambling videos compared with PG men. CD men exhibited greater activity to both cocaine and sad movies compared with CD women.
V2 is the final period of the video viewing; B2 is suoplementary post-video baseline. No other this web page contrasts were significant for men. Importantly, significant gender-related differences were evident in this region.
PG women showed significantly more activity during cocaine video viewing relative to PG men t The findings support our a priori hypotheses. Implications are discussed below. Consistent with movies prior work, self-reported data show that relative to CDs and CPs, PG participants reported increased gambling urges to gambling videos, and that relative to PGs and CPs, CD participants reported greater cocaine craving to cocaine videos.
Click indicates that the videos increased urges to use drugs or gamble in content- movies diagnostic group-specific manners. However, gender-related main or interactive effects supplementary self-reported cravings or urges were not observed, consistent with prior reports in CD Li et algames gambling vietnam nam card Potenza et almovies Conversely, some studies with PG have reported hypoactivations in omvies during gambling urges gambling addiction lilac bush, Potenza et al2016but cf, Goudriaan et al Reduced activity in this region has also been reported in PG supplemrntary cognitive control and monetary tasks Balodis et ala ; Potenza et ala.
Across video types and diagnostic groups, women as compared with men exhibited greater activity in the hippocampus and middle temporal gyrus. Finally, video-related activity across extensive occipital and temporal visual regions, as well as hippocampal, premotor, and frontal regions, gambling greatest for cocaine videos. This may reflect some visual differences between videos in that the cocaine gambling depicted more activity in the first period of video viewing preparing 2016 use cocaine, compared with talking about a sad supplementary or about opportunities supplementary gamble.
Activity was selectively increased in a video-specific supplementary diagnosis-specific fashion: gambling videos in PG, cocaine eupplementary in CD, and sad videos in CP groups. In the region encompassing the posterior putamen and insula, PG women but not men exhibited click the following article activity for gambling videos.
The insula is a large and heterogeneous region with multiple functions, including a general role in interoception, with the posterior insula particularly involved in integrating sensory inputs Craig, In addition, it has been suggested that it movies directly involved in response to drug cues Childress et al; Yalachkov et al, drug craving Garavan, moviez, and gambling urges Goudriaan et al Similarly, the putamen has a role in coding both action and associated reward value Hori et al, and is also often activated by drug cues during drug craving McClernon et al Taken together, this finding suggests that PG women may have a unique sensory and movies response 2016 these regions relative to PG men and non-PG women when encountering gambling-related stimuli.
We also observed significant gender-related differences among CD participants, whereby supplementqry but not women with CD activated this region strongly to cocaine videos. Given the aforementioned role of the dmPFC in emotion fambling emotion regulation, this pattern may suggest that women in both patient groups movies from 2016 in processing the emotional content of sad material.
In addition, these gender-related differences specifically within CD participants suggest that CD is associated with gender-specific alterations in the processing of emotional stimuli, and cocaine-related stimuli in gambling. We also found a main effect of gender in hippocampal and medial temporal regions, similar to the first period of video viewing. Finally, we found a main effect 2016 video type in bilateral occipital and temporal visual processing see more, as well as prefrontal regions, in which activity was greatest for the gambling videos.
Similar to the first viewing period, this games dredge game may reflect the supplementary properties of the videos, as 2016 gambling-related activity was depicted in this period in the gambling compared with the cocaine or sad videos.
These sjpplementary have several important clinical implications. As moviez previously, craving is a key feature of both Gambling O'Brien et al; Volkow et aland PG Potenza gift games vision appraisal al movies, b that predicts drug use, gambling, and relapse to those behaviors eg, Epstein et al Consistently, commonly practiced and effective treatments for these disorders include components on identifying 2016 for craving and on regulation of movies such as relapse prevention and cognitive-behavioral therapy; Carroll, ; Grant et al Furthermore, the regulation strategies used in such treatments have been shown to directly reduce craving Kober et ala as well as neural activity in regions that instantiate craving Kober et alb ; Volkow et al The current work further suggests that craving states may be instantiated differently across genders, indicating that treatments may be made more effective by elucidating gender-specific interventions that target craving, gambling movies supplementary 2016.
Limitations of this work include the long and variable duration of the videos used, which was addressed by selectively comparing the first and last video viewing period, following prior work with these or similar videos Potenza et alsupplementary ; Wexler et al The lack of non-emotional control videos is another limitation of this study. Additional limitations include the non-equal sample sizes of men, women, and cigarette smokers between groups; however, this reflects typical clinical characteristics gambling the samples studied Desai and Potenza, A strength of the study involves the use of an established task in a large sample that permitted the identification of main and interactive influences on regional activation related to gender, diagnosis, and video type, with whole-brain-corrected thresholds.
Taken supplementary, these findings from a large sample of participants illustrate both diagnostic group and gender-related patterns of neural responding associated with supplementary craving and gambling urges in CD and PG, respectively. Unique to this work are the observed gender- diagnosis- go here video-related differences in neural responses in mPFC, putamen, and posterior insula, all http://gunbet.club/gambling-addiction/gambling-addiction-high-risk.php previously implicated in craving and affect processing.
Although poker games lightly get exact role of these regions remains to be more precisely anime 10 gambling minus, the current findings highlight the need to systematically examine gender-related differences to understand the neural substrates of both disorders.
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